Constructivist Poems – Pierre Garnier

Pierre Garnier in the early sixties would refer to constructivist poems or constructivist landscapes. He emerged in the 1960s as one of France’s prominent poets associated with concrete poetry.
‘Words are components of the constructivist landscape.They determine the poetic course evoked in the reader’s/spectator’s mind’ [1] 
I am interested in Garnier’s ideas – more in depth reading needs to be done but the idea of a constructivist poem which moves on from concrete poetry to looking at the spatial relationships.

Below is Garnier’s poetic categories which I thought simplified really well the different strands within the area of visual/experimental poetry.
Concrete poetry; working with language material creating structures with it, transmitting primarily aesthetic information.
Phonetic poetry: based upon the phonemes, sound bodies of language and generally speaking upon all sounds emitted by the vocal organs of man, worked on the tape-recorder and tending towards the creation of spatial sound;
Objective poetry: pictorial, graphic, sculptural and musical arrangement due to the collaboration of painters, sculptors, musicians and typographers;
Visual poetry; the word or its elements taken as objects and centers of visual energy;
Phonic Poetry: the poem composed directly on magnetic tape, words and sentences being taken as objects and centers of auditory energy; Cybernetic, serial, permutational, verbophonic, etc., poetry .” [2]
1. Garnier P.Constructivist poems. in:Experimental -visual-Concrete, Avant-Garde Poetry Since the 1960s.Ed Jackson D, Vos E, Drucker J.Radopi B.V.Amsterdam, 1996.
2. Garnier P, quoted in Mary Ellen Solt. Concrete Poetry (Indiana:Indiana U.P. 1979) 79.

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